Power Generation

Laser Based – Gas Detection/Monitoring

You’ll see a general theme here and that is Boreal Laser’s line of Laser Based – Gas Detectors thrive where other technologies to do survive.

Here is a quick re-cap of applications within the Power Generation Industry such as: Coal Fired, Natural Gas, Waste-to-Energy, and Nuclear.

  • Lithium Ion Batteries: Battery Farm

    Process:

    When Lithium Ion Batteries fail, they release a toxic gas called Hydrogen Fluoride (HF). At Battery Farms, where large quantities are present, there may be a regulatory requirement for Fence Line Hydrogen Fluoride (HF) Monitoring.

    Challenge:

    To ensure sufficient area coverage to detect leaks of Hydrogen Fluoride (HF), it may be cost prohibitive to purchase, design, build infrastructure, install, and deal with the perpetual maintenance burden of Traditional – Fixed Point Gas Detectors (e.g. Electro-Chemical Sensors).

    The end-user will have a better chance to detect a loss of containment if the Traditional Fixed Point Gas Detectors are located close to source but will very likely be poisoned, fouled, and consumed by the exposure to the high concentration gas and thus defeating the purpose of gas detection.

    If the Traditional – Fixed Point Gas Detectors are mounted further from the source, like on the fence line, they may not provide the area coverage, speed of response, and low end detection thresholds needed to response the presence of gas.

    Traditional – Fixed Point Gas Detectors provide no feedback indicating that they’re operational. In most cases, these sensors will fail to zero and the end-user will only know this if they bump, test, or challenge the system with actual target gas.

    Drivers/Stakeholders:

    Health & Safety Executive (HSE) Stakeholders:  Due to the large store and toxic nature of the gas, if a leak were to occur, both the plume and potential accumulation of gas can exceed the Immediately Dangerous to Life & Health (IDLH) Exposure Threshold.

    Leak Detection & Repair (LDAR): To help provide operations and maintenance personnel with an additional method to detection a failed battery this technology will help provide redundancy.

    Community/Regulatory Pressure: Depending on the location of the Battery Farm and the disposition of the neighboring community, they may place pressure on the operator to ensure that there are no undetected losses of containment. In some cases, this solution has been used as a Public Relations Tool.

    Opportunity:

    With Laser Based – Open Path Gas Detection, end-users have the choice of three (3) Deployment Strategies to ensure they have the best area coverage possible (e.g. Equipment Specific Monitoring, Area Monitoring, and Perimeter Monitoring).

    Unlike Traditional – Fixed Point Gas Detection (e.g. Electro-Chemical or Catalytic Bead Sensor), Laser Based – Open Path Gas Detection can be handle continuous exposure to high temperatures and high concentrations of gas without any degradation to performance or lifespan.

    Identify small leaks before they become larger more dangerous ones.

    Laser Based – Open Path Gas Detection can be used for not only leak detection but Leak Detection & Repair (LDAR) and Public Relations Tool in the case of Community Pressure.

    Major Points of Emphasis:

    Incipient Leak Detection:  This technology will survive continuous and/or very high concentrations of gas where Traditional Technologies will become poisoned, flooded, and fouled but more importantly, this will detect very small concentration plumes in the event of a battery failure.

    Leak Detection & Repair (LDAR): Great tool for regulatory and community pressure.

    No Calibration and No Intervention: This is due to the GasFinder’s Internal Reference Cell.

    Fail-Safe Design: Sophisticated Diagnostics with no undisclosed failure modes.

    Equipment:

    Laser Based – Stack/Duct Measurements: https://boreal-laser.com/products/open-path-opx-head/

    Ammonia Performance Specifications: https://boreal-laser.com/gases/hydrogen-fluoride/

  • Coal Fired - Anhydrous Ammonia Storage

    Process:

    Anhydrous Ammonia is stored on-site within the horizontal bullets. The Anhydrous Ammonia is then piped and pumped to other locations within the Coal Fired Power Plant.

    Challenge:

    To ensure sufficient area coverage to detect leaks of ammonia gas, it may be cost prohibitive to purchase, design, build infrastructure, install, and deal with the perpetual maintenance burden of Traditional – Fixed Point Gas Detectors (e.g. Electro-Chemical Sensors).

    The end-user will have a better chance to detect a loss of containment if the Traditional Fixed Point Gas Detectors are located close to source but will very likely be poisoned, fouled, and consumed by the exposure to the high concentration gas and thus defeating the purpose of gas detection.

    If the Traditional – Fixed Point Gas Detectors are mounted further from the source, like on the fence line, they may not provide the area coverage, speed of response, and low end detection thresholds needed to response the presence of gas.

    Traditional – Fixed Point Gas Detectors provide no feedback indicating that they’re operational. In most cases, these sensors will fail to zero and the end-user will only know this if they bump, test, or challenge the system with actual target gas.

    Drivers/Stakeholders:

    Health & Safety Executive (HSE) Stakeholders:  Due to the large store and toxic nature of the gas, if a leak were to occur, both the plume and potential accumulation of gas can exceed the Immediately Dangerous to Life & Health (IDLH) Exposure Threshold.

    Leak Detection & Repair (LDAR): The physical properties of ammonia make it difficult to keep contained and is prone to incipient leaks coming from flanges, pumps, and pressure relief devices.

    Community Pressure: Depending on the location of the Storage Bullets and the disposition of the neighbouring community, they may place pressure on the operator to ensure that there are no undetected losses of containment. In some cases, this solution has been used as a Public Relations Pacification Tool.

    Opportunity:

    With Laser Based – Open Path Gas Detection, end-users have the choice of three (3) Deployment Strategies to ensure they have the best area coverage possible (e.g. Equipment Specific Monitoring, Area Monitoring, and Perimeter Monitoring).

    Unlike Traditional – Fixed Point Gas Detection (e.g. Electro-Chemical or Catalytic Bead Sensor), Laser Based – Open Path Gas Detection can be handle continuous exposure to high temperatures and high concentrations of gas without any degradation to performance or lifespan.

    Identify small leaks before they become larger more dangerous ones.

    Laser Based – Open Path Gas Detection can be used for not only leak detection but Leak Detection & Repair (LDAR) and Public Relations Tool in the case of Community Pressure.

    Major Points of Emphasis:

    Incipient/Discrete Leak Detection:  This technology will survive continuous and/or very high concentrations of gas where Traditional Technologies will become poisoned, flooded, and fouled.

    Leak Detection & Repair (LDAR): Great tool for regulatory and community pressure.

    No Calibration and No Intervention: This is due to the GasFinder’s Internal Reference Cell.

    Fail-Safe Design: Sophisticated Diagnostics with no undisclosed failure modes.

    Equipment:

    Laser Based – Stack/Duct Measurements: https://boreal-laser.com/products/open-path-opx-head/

    Ammonia Performance Specifications: https://boreal-laser.com/gases/ammonia/

  • Coal Fired - Ammonia Vaporization Skid

    Process:

    Anhydrous Ammonia is vaporized and injected into the Flue Gas for Sulphur Catalytic Reduction (SCR) Purposes.

    Challenge:

    It may be cost prohibitive to purchase, design, build infrastructure, install, and deal with the perpetual maintenance burden of Traditional – Fixed Point Gas Detectors.

    Traditional – Fixed Point Gas Detectors provide no feedback indicating that they’re operational. In most cases, these sensors will fail to zero and the end-user will only know this if they bump, test, or challenge the system with actual target gas.

    Drivers/Stakeholders:

    Maintenance/Operations: To meet regulatory emissions requirements, it is important to know that the ammonia is being injected into the flue the duct and not escaping at the vaporizer skid.

    Health & Safety Executive (HSE) Stakeholders:  Monitoring equipment needs to be in place to warn personnel of a potentially dangerous accumulation of toxic and flammable gas and to shutdown the equipment upon detection. Due to the limited access and egress while on the catwalk, it is important to provide personnel with monitoring equipment that can detect a leak as quickly as possible but will also survive being exposed to ammonia.

    Opportunity:

    Laser Based – Open Path Gas Detection is ideal for use in an outdoor application on an elevated catwalk.

    Unlike Traditional – Fixed Point Gas Detection (e.g. Electro-Chemical or Catalytic Bead Sensor), Laser Based – Open Path Gas Detection can be handle continuous exposure to high concentrations of gas without any degradation to performance or lifespan.

    Laser Based – Open Path Gas Detection quickly identifies small leaks before they become larger more dangerous ones.

    Reduce your Maintenance Burden while increasing operations/maintenances faith in equipment that very well may save their lives.

    Major Points of Emphasis:

    Discrete Leak Detection:  This technology will survive continuous and/or very high concentrations of gas where Traditional Technologies will become poisoned, flooded, and fouled.

    Leak Detection & Repair (LDAR): In addition to Governmental and Industry Regulations requiring periodic inspection for leaks, this equipment can passively monitor 24 hours a day and 365 days a year notifying operations about small incipient leaks (e.g. packing of a valve, seal on a pump, etc.).

    No Calibration and No Intervention: This is due to the GasFinder’s Internal Reference Cell.

    Fail-Safe Design: Sophisticated Diagnostics with no undisclosed failure modes.

    Equipment:

    Laser Based – Stack/Duct Measurements: https://boreal-laser.com/products/open-path-opx-head/

    Ammonia Performance Specifications: https://boreal-laser.com/gases/ammonia/

  • Carbon Capture & Storage - Processing and Compression

    Process:

    During the process of capturing the Carbon Dioxide (CO2) from the Flue Gas it later needs to be processed and compressed so it then can be stored.

    Challenge:

    Essentially pure Carbon Dioxide (CO2) is compressed to a very high pressure and if a leak were to occur inside a process building, Traditional – Fixed Point Gas Detectors would easily be flooded, fouled, and poisoned.

    Due to the number of detectors required, it may be cost prohibitive to purchase, design, build infrastructure, install, and deal with the perpetual maintenance burden of Traditional – Fixed Point Gas Detectors.

    Traditional – Fixed Point Gas Detectors provide no feedback indicating that they’re operational. In most cases, these sensors will fail to zero and the end-user will only know this if they bump, test, or challenge the system with actual target gas.

    Drivers/Stakeholders:

    Maintenance/Operations: Due to the toxicity of Carbon Dioxide (CO2) and the almost pure concentration within the pipe, it is of critical importance maintenance and operational personnel know that they product that can provide as early warning of a leak a possible.

    Health & Safety Executive (HSE) Stakeholders: With the quantitative measurements of Laser Based – Open Path Gas Detection, Industrial Health & Hygienists can passively monitor the area to ensure the proper policies, procedures, and PPE are being used.

    Leak Detection & Repair (LDAR): In addition to Governmental and Industry Regulations requiring periodic inspection for leaks, this equipment can passively monitor 24 hours a day and 365 days a year notifying operations about small incipient leaks.

    Opportunity:

    Unlike Traditional – Fixed Point Gas Detection (e.g. Electro-Chemical or Catalytic Bead Sensor), Laser Based – Open Path Gas Detection can be handle continuous exposure to high concentrations of gas without any degradation to performance or lifespan.

    Laser Based – Open Path Gas Detection quickly identifies small leaks before they become larger more dangerous ones.

    Reduce your Maintenance Burden while increasing operations/maintenances faith in equipment that very well may save their lives.

    Leak Detection & Repair (LDAR): In addition to Governmental and Industry Regulations requiring periodic inspection for leaks, this equipment can passively monitor 24 hours a day and 365 days a year notifying operations about small incipient leaks (e.g. packing of a valve, seal on a pump, etc.).

    Major Points of Emphasis:

    Increased Odds of Detection: The large area coverage, fast speed of response, and low end detection thresholds provide the end-user with the earliest possible warning in the event of a leak or release.

    Discrete Leak Detection:  This technology will survive continuous and/or very high concentrations of gas where Traditional Technologies will become poisoned, flooded, and fouled.

    No Calibration and No Intervention: This is due to the GasFinder’s Internal Reference Cell.

    Fail-Safe Design: Sophisticated Diagnostics with no undisclosed failure modes.

    Equipment:

    Laser Based – Open Path Gas Detection: https://boreal-laser.com/products/open-path-opx-head/

    Performance Specifications: https://boreal-laser.com/gases/carbon-dioxide/

  • Carbon Capture & Storage - Heat Exchanger Monitoring

    Process:

    To cool the compressed and collected flue gas, the Carbon Dioxide (CO2) is passed through a Heat Exchanger.

    Challenge:

    There are logistical challenges to placing monitoring equipment above the louvers of heat exchangers as well as the high temperatures and high air velocity make using Traditional – Fixed Point Gas Detection challenging if not impossible.

    Drivers/Stakeholders:

    Over time, there can be degradation to the integrity of the Tube Bundles within the exchanger which can eventually cause a loss of containment and result in Carbon Dioxide (CO2) unknowingly being emitted. This can be a concern to a number of individuals such as Operations/Engineering, Reliability/Maintenance, and Health & Safety Executive (HSE) Stakeholders.

    There maybe Governmental, Industry, or Community pressure on the operator to ensure that there are no undetected losses of containment.

    Opportunity:

    By using Laser Based – Open Path Gas Detection, the Open Path (OPX) Head and Retro-Reflector can be mounted in accessible locations and outside of the hot flue of gas being trusted out of the exchanger.

    Since the laser beam is the only portion of the Gas Detector that comes into contact with the hot flue the end-user does not need to worry about reduced lifespan of the equipment.

    In the case of a leak from the Tubing Bundle within the Heat Exchanger, the extremely turbulent air from the fans and tubing bundles will help to rapidly expand the plume to make detection of Carbon Dioxide (CO2) by one or two Laser Based – Open Path Gas Detectors easily possible.

    Major Points of Emphasis:

    Robustness: Laser Based – Open Path Gas Detection thrives where Traditional Gas Detection Technologies do not survive (i.e. very hot application).

    No Calibration and No Intervention: This is due to the GasFinder’s Internal Reference Cell.

    Large Area Coverage and Speed of Response: Provides exceptional coverage and significantly increases the odds of detection.

    Fail-Safe Design: Sophisticated Diagnostics with no undisclosed failure modes.

    Equipment:

    Laser Based – Stack/Duct Measurements: https://boreal-laser.com/products/open-path-opx-head/

    Performance Specifications: https://boreal-laser.com/gases/carbon-dioxide/

  • Carbon Capture & Storage - Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Injection Well

    Process:

    The captured Carbon Dioxide (CO2) which has been both compressed and transferred via a pipeline to an injection well.

    Challenge:

    To ensure sufficient area coverage to detect leaks of Carbon Dioxide (CO2), it may be cost prohibitive to purchase, design, build infrastructure, install, and deal with the perpetual maintenance burden of Traditional – Fixed Point Gas Detectors (e.g. Electro-Chemical Sensors).

    The end-user will have a better chance to detect a loss of containment if the Traditional – Fixed Point Gas Detectors are located close to source but will very likely be poisoned, fouled, and consumed by the exposure to the high concentration gas and thus defeating the purpose of gas detection.

    If the Traditional – Fixed Point Gas Detectors are mounted further from the source, like on the fence line, they may not provide the area coverage, speed of response, and low end detection thresholds needed to respond to the presence of gas.

    Traditional – Fixed Point Gas Detectors provide no feedback indicating that they’re operational. In most cases, these sensors will fail to zero and the end-user will only know this if they bump, test, or challenge the system with actual target gas.

    Drivers/Stakeholders:

    Health & Safety Executive (HSE) Stakeholders:  Due to the large store and toxic nature of Carbon Dioxide (CO2), if a leak were to occur, both the plume and potential accumulation of gas can exceed the Immediately Dangerous to Life & Health (IDLH) Exposure Threshold.

    Leak Detection & Repair (LDAR): In addition to Governmental and Industry Regulations requiring periodic inspection for leaks, this equipment can passively monitor 24 hours a day and 365 days a year notifying operations about small incipient leaks.

    Regulatory Requirements: It very well may be a requirement of the local environmental regulator that ambient monitoring equipment be installed at each of the injection wells.

    Opportunity:

    With Laser Based – Open Path Gas Detection, end-users have the choice of three (3) Deployment Strategies to ensure they have the best area coverage possible (e.g. Equipment Specific Monitoring, Area Monitoring, and Perimeter Monitoring).

    Unlike Traditional – Fixed Point Gas Detection (e.g. Electro-Chemical or Catalytic Bead Sensor), Laser Based – Open Path Gas Detection can be handle continuous exposure to high temperatures and high concentrations of gas without any degradation to performance or lifespan.

    Identify small leaks before they become larger more dangerous ones.

    Major Points of Emphasis:

    Enhanced Area Monitoring Solution: Used to meet or exceed the environmental regulatory requirements

    No Calibration and No Intervention: Thanks to the GasFinder’s Internal Reference Cell, this make this technology and product ideal for remote or difficult to access locations

    Increased Odds of Detection: This is because of Laser Based – Open Path Gas Detections large area coverage, fast speed of response, and low end detection thresholds

    Fail-Safe Design: Sophisticated Diagnostics with no undisclosed failure modes.

    Equipment:

    Laser Based – Open Path Gas Detection: https://boreal-laser.com/products/open-path-opx-head/

    Performance Specifications: https://boreal-laser.com/gases/carbon-dioxide/

  • Natural Gas - Turbine Enclosure Monitoring

    Process:

    End-User’s are concerned with explosive levels of natural gas (i.e. Methane) accumulating within the Turbine Enclosure from either a leaking fuel train or having external plume of natural gas being pulled in through the louvers.

    Challenge:

    The Turbine can generate temperatures up to 350°F within the Turbine Enclosure. These high temperatures push the limits of Traditional – Fixed Point Gas Detectors (i.e. Catalytic Bead Sensors) which result in significant measurement drift and dramatically reduced life span. Due to the high temperatures, operations and maintenance personnel are not allowed within the Turbine Enclosure to calibrate, repair, or replace the Catalytic Bead Sensors. It is typical to have a turnaround every six months and to help ensure these sensors survive until then, they install 2-6 Redundant Catalytic Bead Sensors.

    Drivers/Stakeholders:

    The obvious and direct drivers would be Maintenance and Reliability but if a Turbine needs to shutdown because a key Sensing Element within their Safety System is no longer function and it needs to be repaired, then that can be a significant amount of lost power, production, and revenue. This may catch the attention of Operations, Engineering, Plant Management, and Corporate.

    As with most gas detection applications, this is installed for the purpose of Risk Mitigation to help aid in the recovery after a loss of containment. Think of this as the best available insurance policy.

    Opportunity:

    To meet the permissive and detection requirements, now all of the monitoring equipment in mounted outside of the Turbine Enclosure.

    No Electronics are directly exposed to the heat and this means that the monitoring equipment will have a longer life span.

    No Replacement Sensors are required as Laser Light is not damaged by the enclosures high temperatures.

    No Calibration + No Intervention: Automatic adjustments made within the GasFinder via the functionality of the Internal Reference Cell.

    Major Points of Emphasis:

    No Enclosure Access Required: All of the equipment is mounted on the outside of the Turbine Enclosure and nothing is directly exposed to the heat.

    Fail-Safe Design: Sophisticated diagnostics with no undisclosed failure modes (e.g. Catalytic Bead Sensors fail to zero and provide no feedback if they are poisoned, fouled, or no longer functioning).

    Enhanced Performance Capabilities: Large Area Coverage and Fast Speed of Response ensure the best odds of detection.

    Optimize your Safety System: Early detection means rapid intervention to help protect the asset and near by personnel.

    Equipment:

    Laser Based – Stack/Duct Measurements: https://boreal-laser.com/products/stack-duct-sdx-probe/

    Methane Performance Specifications: https://boreal-laser.com/gases/methane/

  • Natural Gas - Fuel Gas Heat Exchanger

    Process:

    This Exchanger is used to heat the cold natural gas up to temperature to remain over the dew point to help with optimizing combustion efficiency.

    Challenge:

    There are logistical challenges to placing monitoring equipment above the louvers of heat exchangers as well as the high temperatures and high air velocity make using Traditional – Fixed Point Gas Detection challenging if not impossible.

    Drivers/Stakeholders:

    Over time, there can be degradation to the integrity of the Tube Bundles within the exchanger which can eventually cause a loss of containment and result in natural gas unknowingly be emitted. This can be a concern to a number of individuals such as Operations/Engineering, Reliability/Maintenance, and Health & Safety Executive (HSE) Stakeholders.

    The location of the Power Generation Facility and the disposition of the neighboring community may place pressure on the operator to ensure that there are no undetected losses of containment. In some cases, this solution has been used as a Public Relations Tool.

    Opportunity:

    By using Laser Based – Open Path Gas Detection, the Open Path (OPX) Head and Retro-Reflector can be mounted in accessible locations and outside of the hot flue of gas being trusted out of the exchanger.

    Since the laser beam is the only portion of the Gas Detector that comes into contact with the hot flue the end-user does not need to worry about reduced lifespan of the equipment.

    In the case of a leak from the Tubing Bundle within the Heat Exchanger, the extremely turbulent air from the fans and tubing bundles will help to rapidly expand the plume to make detection of Methane (CH4) by one or two Laser Based – Open Path Gas Detectors easily possible.

    Major Points of Emphasis:

    Robustness: Laser Based – Open Path Gas Detection thrives where Traditional Gas Detection Technologies do not survive (i.e. very hot application).

    No Calibration and No Intervention: This is due to the GasFinder’s Internal Reference Cell.

    Large Area Coverage and Speed of Response: Provides exceptional coverage and significantly increases the odds of detection.

    Fail-Safe Design: Sophisticated Diagnostics with no undisclosed failure modes.

    Equipment:

    Laser Based – Open Path Gas Detection: https://boreal-laser.com/products/open-path-opx-head/

    Methane Performance Specifications: https://boreal-laser.com/gases/methane/

  • Natural Gas - Compressor Monitoring

    Process:

    There are a number of locations (such as the crank case) where natural gas can leak from on a compressor.

    Challenge:

    If multiple compressors are located in the same area, it may cost prohibitive to purchase, design, build infrastructure, install, and deal with the perpetual maintenance burden of number of Traditional – Fixed Point Gas Detectors required for sufficient area coverage.

    If the Traditional – Fixed Point Gas Detectors are mounted close to the compressors they’ll have a better chance to detect a loss of containment but they’ll be less likely to survive a loss of containment. As Traditional – Fixed Point Gas Detectors are mounted further from the source, like on the fence line, they may not provide the area coverage, speed of response, and low end detection thresholds needed for the application.

    Drivers/Stakeholders:

    Maintenance/Operations: By the very nature of its design, the heat and pressure generated from Compressors will eventually lead to failures of components which can lead to a loss of containment.

    Health & Safety Executive (HSE):  Monitoring equipment needs to be in place to warn personnel of a potentially dangerous accumulation of flammable gas and to shutdown the equipment upon detection.

    Leak Detection & Repair (LDAR): In addition to Governmental and Industry Regulations requiring periodic inspection for leaks, this equipment can passively monitor 24 hours a day and 365 days a year notifying operations about small incipient leaks (e.g. packing of a valve, seal on a pump, etc.).

    Community Pressure: Depending on the location of the Compressor and the disposition of the neighboring community, they may place pressure on the operator to ensure that there are no undetected losses of containment. In some cases, this solution has been used as a Public Relations Pacification Tool.

    Opportunity:

    Laser Based – Open Path Gas Detection is ideal for use if the compressor is mounted within a building or left without any roof or enclosure.

    Unlike Traditional – Fixed Point Gas Detection (e.g. Electro-Chemical or Catalytic Bead Sensor), Laser Based – Open Path Gas Detection can be handle continuous exposure to high temperatures and high concentrations of gas without any degradation to performance or lifespan.

    Identify small leaks before they become larger more dangerous ones.

    Laser Based – Open Path Gas Detection can be used for not only leak detection but Leak Detection & Repair (LDAR) and Public Relations Tool in the case of Community Pressure.

    Major Points of Emphasis:

    Discrete Leak Detection:  This technology will survive continuous and/or very high concentrations of gas where Traditional Technologies will become poisoned, flooded, and fouled.

    Leak Detection & Repair (LDAR): Great tool for regulatory and community pressure.

    No Calibration and No Intervention: This is due to the GasFinder’s Internal Reference Cell.

    Fail-Safe Design: Sophisticated Diagnostics with no undisclosed failure modes.

    Equipment:

    Laser Based – Open Path Gas Detection: https://boreal-laser.com/products/open-path-opx-head/

    Methane Performance Specifications: https://boreal-laser.com/gases/methane/

  • Waste to Energy - Process Optimization

    Process:

    Ammonia (NH3) Slip Monitoring: After the economizer, Laser Based – Ammonia (NH3) Gas Measurements are made to make sure the inputted urea levels (which are used to reduce/remove NOx emissions) are optimized as to not use any more than that is necessary.

    Hydrogen Chloride (HCl) Monitoring: Before the economizer, Laser Based – Hydrogen Chloride (HCl) Gas Measurements are made as a Feedforward Control Method to adjust the lime scrubbing rate to counteract items such as unwanted Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) being incinerated along with household garbage.

    Carbon Monoxide (CO), Carbon Dioxide (CO2), Oxygen (O2) Monitoring: These gases can be used as an indication of combustion efficiency relative to quality/composition of the load of municipal waste.

    Challenge:

    Making quantitative measurements while incinerating municipal waste comes with its own set of challenges such as: high temperatures, high humidity, and high particulate levels.

    Drivers/Stakeholders:

    Environmental: As a condition of the Waste-to-Energy Facilities Operational Licence, there may be a requirement to remain below a certain threshold for a number of gases such as Nitrogen Oxides (NOx) and Hydrogen Chloride (HCl) for which they’ll employ the use of Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR).

    Plant Management / Operations: As Urea and Lime Scrubbing Agents have a particular cost per ton, there is a monetary incentive to only use as much as is needed. By monitoring for both Ammonia (NH3) and Hydrogen Chloride (HCl), the end-user will be able to optimize the amount of Urea and Lime that is being injected and saving money while doing so.

    Opportunity:

    Strive for operational excellence by optimizing control loops to increase efficiency and reduce costs.

    Direct and Non-Contact Measurement means that Laser Light is not damaged by the high temperatures and means a long span.

    No Calibration + No Intervention: Automatic adjustments made within the GasFinder via the functionality of the Internal Reference Cell.

    Major Points of Emphasis:

    No Stack/Duct Access Required: All of the equipment is mounted on the outside of the Stack/Duct and nothing is directly exposed to the heat.

    Fail-Safe Design: Sophisticated diagnostics with no undisclosed failure modes.

    Enhanced Performance Capabilities: Large Area Coverage and Fast Speed of Response ensure the best odds of detection and representative measurements.

    Optimize your Control System: Early detection means rapid intervention to optimize Urea and Lime levels.

    Equipment:

    Laser Based – Stack/Duct Measurements: https://boreal-laser.com/products/stack-duct-sdx-probe/

    Methane Performance Specifications: https://boreal-laser.com/gases/ammonia/ & https://boreal-laser.com/gases/hydrochloric-acid/

  • Nuclear - Personnel Protection

    Process: 

    Hydrogen Fluoride (HF): This highly toxic gas can be present and pose an threat to personnel safety in UF6 Conversion/Enrichment Rooms, Fluorine Storage Rooms, Autoclave Rooms, Laboratories, and Hallways.

    Ammonia (NH3): This toxic gas can be found in Uranium (UO­2/UO3) Conversion Process.

    Challenge:

    Be it Electro-Chemical Sensors or Detectors that use disks of glass that turn opaque, Traditional – Fixed Point Gas Detectors provide limited detection areas, have slow speed of response, and are a significant maintenance burden.

    The performance of the Traditional – Fixed Point Gas Detectors often do not meet the enhanced detection requirements of the application.

    Drivers/Stakeholders:

    Health & Safety Executive (HSE) Stakeholders:  Monitoring equipment needs to be in place to warn personnel of a potentially dangerous accumulation of the toxic gas and to enable any sort of recovery actions required.

    Community/Governmental/Industry Pressure: In addition to Governmental and Industry Regulations, there is a strong lobby against most if not all Nuclear application and this drives the need to passively monitor 24 hours a day and 365 days a year notifying operations about any losses of containment.

    Opportunity:

    Reduce Operational Expenditures while meeting Regulatory Requirements.

    No Calibration + No Intervention: Automatic adjustments made within the GasFinder via the functionality of the Internal Reference Cell.

    Major Points of Emphasis:

    Discrete Leak Detection:  This technology will survive continuous and/or very high concentrations of gas where Traditional Technologies will become poisoned, flooded, and fouled.

    Leak Detection & Repair (LDAR): In addition to Governmental and Industry Regulations requiring periodic inspection for leaks, this equipment can passively monitor 24 hours a day and 365 days a year notifying operations about small incipient leaks.

    No Calibration and No Intervention: This is due to the GasFinder’s Internal Reference Cell.

    Fail-Safe Design: Sophisticated Diagnostics with no undisclosed failure modes.

    Equipment:

    Laser Based – Open Path & Fixed Point Measurements:

    Performance Specifications:

  • Nuclear - Fence Line Monitoring

    Process: 

    Either Hydrogen Fluoride (HF) or Ammonia (NH3) could be released from within the process builds as a loss of containment or a process upset can cause increase concentrations of those gases to be emitted from scrubber stacks.

    Challenge:

    It may cost prohibitive to purchase, design, build infrastructure, install, and deal with the perpetual maintenance burden of number of Traditional – Fixed Point Gas Detectors required for sufficient area coverage.

    As Traditional – Fixed Point Gas Detectors are mounted further from the source, like on the fence line, they may not provide the area coverage, speed of response, and low end detection thresholds needed for the application.

    Drivers/Stakeholders:

    Health & Safety Executive (HSE) Stakeholders:  Monitoring equipment needs to be in place to warn personnel of a potentially dangerous accumulation of the toxic gas and to enable any sort of recovery actions required.

    Community/Governmental/Industry Pressure: In addition to Governmental and Industry Regulations, there is a strong lobby against most if not all Nuclear application and this drives the need to passively monitor 24 hours a day and 365 days a year notifying operations about any losses of containment.

    Opportunity:

    Reduce Operational Expenditures while meeting Regulatory Requirements.

    No Calibration + No Intervention: Automatic adjustments made within the GasFinder via the functionality of the Internal Reference Cell.

    Major Points of Emphasis:

    Discrete Leak Detection:  This technology will survive continuous and/or very high concentrations of gas where Traditional Technologies will become poisoned, flooded, and fouled.

    Leak Detection & Repair (LDAR): In addition to Governmental and Industry Regulations requiring periodic inspection for leaks, this equipment can passively monitor 24 hours a day and 365 days a year notifying operations about small incipient leaks.

    No Calibration and No Intervention: This is due to the GasFinder’s Internal Reference Cell.

    Fail-Safe Design: Sophisticated Diagnostics with no undisclosed failure modes.

    Equipment:

    Laser Based – Open Path Measurements:

    Performance Specifications:

  • Nuclear - Autoclave Monitoring

    Process:

    Hydrogen Fluoride (HF) Monitoring: Either within the Autoclave or downstream, Hydrogen Fluoride (HF) measurements can be made for Process Monitoring and Control purposes.

    Challenge:

    Making quantitative measurements comes with its own set of challenges such as high temperatures and pressures.

    Drivers/Stakeholders:

    Plant Management / Operations: A key process in the enrichment process requires having the key information at hand. Making this Process Monitoring & Control measurements enables Operations to optimize the process.

    Opportunity:

    Strive for operational excellence by optimizing control loops to increase efficiency and reduce costs.

    Direct and Non-Contact Measurement means that Laser Light is not damaged by the high temperatures and means a long span.

    No Calibration + No Intervention: Automatic adjustments made within the GasFinder via the functionality of the Internal Reference Cell.

    Major Points of Emphasis:

    No Internal Access Required: All of the equipment is mounted on the outside of the Autoclave and nothing is directly exposed to the heat.

    Fail-Safe Design: Sophisticated diagnostics with no undisclosed failure modes.

    Enhanced Performance Capabilities: Large Area Coverage and Fast Speed of Response ensure the best odds of detection and representative measurements.

    Equipment:

    Laser Based – Stack/Duct Measurements: https://boreal-laser.com/products/in-line-ilx-probe/

    Performance Specifications: https://boreal-laser.com/gases/hydrogen-fluoride/

  • Nuclear - Stack Monitoring

    Process:

    Hydrogen Fluoride (HF) Monitoring: Hydrogen Fluoride (HF) measurements can be made either in the Main or Scrubber Stacks for Process Monitoring and Control purposes.

    Challenge:

    Making quantitative measurements comes with its own set of challenges that are unique to this application.

    Drivers/Stakeholders:

    Plant Management / Operations: To ensure the plant is operated within the limits of the environmental permit, making this Process Monitoring & Control measurements enables Operations to optimize the process.

    Opportunity:

    Strive for operational excellence by optimizing control loops to increase efficiency and reduce costs.

    Direct and Non-Contact Measurement means that Laser Light is not damaged by the high temperatures and means a long span.

    No Calibration + No Intervention: Automatic adjustments made within the GasFinder via the functionality of the Internal Reference Cell.

    Major Points of Emphasis:

    Fail-Safe Design: Sophisticated diagnostics with no undisclosed failure modes.

    Direct and Non-Contact Measurement means that Laser Light is not damaged by the high temperatures and means a long span.

    No Calibration + No Intervention: Automatic adjustments made within the GasFinder via the functionality of the Internal Reference Cell.

    Equipment:

    Laser Based – Stack/Duct Measurements:

    Performance Specifications: